Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Due to Phenytoin
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Therapeutics is open access and peer-reviewed scientific journal. The journal serves as a bridge between scientific explorations and findings in the clinical field. And it also implementing the development of clinically applicable medical tools and techniques.
The kidneys are formed mostly by interstitium and tubules, demonstrating the importance of a better understanding of Tubulo-interstitial Nephritis (TIN). The kidney injury caused by TIN can be acute or chronic, resulting in decreased renal function and normally accompanied by nonspecific symptoms. The Acute Tubulo-interstitial Nephritis (NTIA) is most often due to allergic drug reactions or to infections. In fact, NTIA corresponds to about 10%-15% of all cases of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and it is especially common in hospitalized patients. More than two-thirds of all these cases are drug-induced. The number of tubulointerstitial nephritis’ cases has increased due to the increasing number of prescribed drugs. Many drugs can induce tubulointerstitial nephritis. In our report, we describe a rare case of tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by phenytoin in a polytraumatized and hospitalized pediatric patient (previously healthy).
The clinical spectrum of NTIA is large, patients with NTIA typically present with nonspecific symptoms of acute renal failure. The patient’s clinical picture may range from a simple asymptomatic elevation in creatinine or Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) or abnormal urinary sediment, to generalized hypersensitivity syndrome with the classic triad of fever, rash and eosinophilia, even culminating in oliguric renal failure. A relatively rapid decline in renal function, obtained by measuring the elevation of creatinine and BUN is common to find.
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Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Therapeutics