Criteria for Cannabis and Caffeine Withdrawal
The mental illness somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain can now be diagnosed in patients who present with chronic pain; or mental factors that influence other health conditions; somatization disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder were combined to become somatic symptom disorder, a diagnosis that no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms. Somatic symptom and related disorders are defined by positive symptoms, and the use of medically unexplained symptoms is minimized, with the exception of conversion disorder and pseudocyesis (false pregnancy). Criteria for feeding and eating disorders were changed and can now refer to people of any age. Binge eating disorder graduated from DSM-IV's Appendix B Criteria Sets and Axes provided for further study into a proper diagnosis. Requirements for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were changed from at least twice weekly for 6 months to at least once weekly over the last 3 months. An update was made to the criteria for anorexia nervosa; the presence of amenorrhea is no longer required. The rarely used DSM-IV diagnosis of feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood was renamed avoidant/ restrictive food intake disorder and the criteria were expanded. Elimination disorders there were no significant changes. The disorders in this chapter were previously categorized under DSM-IV disorders that are typically first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Sleep disorders related to another mental disorder, and sleep disorders related to a general medical condition were removed from the DSM-5. Primary insomnia became insomnia disorder, and narcolepsy is now distinct from other hyper somnolence. There are now three breathing-related sleep disorders: Sexual dysfunctions DSM-5 have sex-specific sexual dysfunctions. For females, sexual desire and arousal disorders are combined into female sexual interest/arousal disorder. Sexual dysfunctions except substance/medication induced sexual dysfunction now require duration of approximately 6 months and more exact severity criteria. Subtypes for all disorders include only lifelong versus acquired and generalized versus situational one subtype was deleted sexual dysfunction as a result of a general medical condition and due to psychological versus combined factors. Gender identity disorder in DSM-IV is comparable to gender dysphoria in DSM-5, but it is not the same thing. There are now separate criteria for children, adolescents, and adults that take into account the various stages of development. Cross-gender identification and aversion toward one's gender were combined, among other wording changes. These changes result in the creation of a separate gender dysphoria for adults and adolescents in addition to subtypes of gender identity disorder based on sexual orientation. The group has been separated from the category of sexual disorders and placed in its own category. Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders some of these disorders were formerly part of the chapter on early diagnosis, oppositional defiant disorder. The creation of a specific diagnosis for children reflects the lesser ability of children to have insight into what they are experiencing and ability to express it in the event that they do have insight. The stigmatization of the term disorder and the relatively common use of gender dysphoria in the GID literature and among specialists in behaviour disorder; antisocial personality disorder is listed here and in the chapter on personality disorders although ADHD is listed under neurodevelopmental disorders symptoms for oppositional defiant disorder are of three types: Mood of rage or irritation, argumentative or defiant behaviour and vengeance. The exclusion for conduct disorders is removed.
Substance-related and addictive disorders gambling disorder and tobacco use disorder are new. Substance abuse and substance dependence from DSM-IV-TR have been combined into single substance use disorders specific to each substance of abuse within a new addictions and related disorders category. The threshold of the number of criteria that must be met was changed and severity from mild to severe is based on the number of criteria endorsed. Criteria for cannabis and caffeine withdrawal were added. Dementia and amnestic disorder became major or mild Neurocognitive Disorder (major NCD, or mild NCD). DSM-5 has a new list of neurocognitive domains. New separate criteria are now presented" for major or mild NCD due to various conditions substance/medication-induced NCD and unspecified NCD are new diagnoses. A PD's heterogeneity is a problem in and of itself for instance, it is possible for two individuals with the same diagnosis to have completely distinct symptoms that would not necessarily overlap when determining the criteria for PD. Additionally, there is concern regarding which model is superior for the DSM the diagnostic model favoured by psychiatrists or the dimensional model favoured by psychologists. The diagnostic approach/model is one that follows traditional medicine's diagnostic approach, is easier to use in clinical settings, but does not take into account the nuances of normal and abnormal personality. The dimensional approach and model do a better job of showing a variety of personality levels; Paraphilic disorders new specifiers in a controlled environment and in remission were added to criteria for all paraphilic disorders. A distinction is made between paraphilic behaviours, or paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. All sets were changed to add the word disorder to all of the paraphilias, for example, pedophilic disorder is listed instead of pedophilia. There has been no change in the basic diagnostic structure however, in order to be diagnosed with a paraphilic disorder; individuals must now satisfy both the qualitative and negative consequences criteria. Without a diagnosis, they have paraphilia. Emerging measures and models it includes a description of the clinical conditions that are currently being studied, dimensional measures for evaluating symptoms, criteria for the cultural formulation of disorders, and an alternative proposal for the conceptualization of personality disorders. It presents chosen devices and examination procedures zeroed in on conclusion, considering the sociocultural setting, and furthermore presents a mixture layered all out model of behavioural conditions. Non-specific disorders and specific personalities such as antisocial, borderline, avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal were distinguished.
Journal of Trauma & Orthopedic Nursing