Stab Wounds and Gunshot Wounds
Penetrative trauma, such as stab wounds and gunshot wounds, accounts for the majority of pancreas injuries. Fewer than 5% of cases of blunt abdominal trauma result in pancreatic injuries. The amount of damage to the pancreatic duct determines the severity of a pancreatic injury. The stomach is also well protected from injury due to its thick layering, abundant blood supply, and position in relation to the rib cage. The majority of traumatic stomach injuries, like those to the pancreas, are the result of penetrative trauma, and the majority of civilian weapons do not cause stomach tissue damage that lasts for a long time. The most common type of organ damage in cases of abdominal trauma is liver injury. The liver's size and location in the body makes injury relatively common compared to other abdominal organs, and blunt trauma injury to the liver is typically treated with non-operative management. Liver injuries are rarely serious, though most injuries to the liver are concomitant with other injuries, particularly to the spleen, ribs, pelvis, or spinal cord. The liver is also susceptible to toxic injury, with Nasal trauma is the most common type of facial injury. Traffic accidents or alcohol-related violence are the most common causes of oral injuries, though falls are more common in young children. The condition of the airway and the absence of concurrent head or neck injuries are the primary concerns regarding oral injuries. Dental trauma, the hard tissue of the mandible, or the soft tissue of the face are all examples of oral injuries. The ear is particularly vulnerable to trauma in head injuries due to its prominent location and exposed structure. Internal or external ear injuries are possible. The most common type of external ear injury is a hematoma or a cut in the cartilage. A perforated eardrum or trauma brought on by extreme pressure changes are examples of injuries to the middle and internal ear. Additionally, blast injury is extremely sensitive to the ear. Injury to the ear can result in facial paralysis because the bones of the ear are connected to facial nerves. Injury to the ear can cause hearing loss. Eye wounds frequently happen in the cornea, and they can possibly for all time harm vision. Contact with foreign objects frequently results in corneal abrasions. A foreign object that remains within the cornea can also cause damage to the eye. Radiation harm can be brought about by openness to unreasonable light, frequently brought about by welding without eye security or being presented to inordinate bright radiation, like daylight. If the eyes are not sufficiently irrigated, exposure to corrosive chemicals can permanently damage them and result in blindness. The infra-orbital margin protects the eye from most blunt injuries, but in some cases, blunt force can tear or hemorrhage the eye. Eye strain can be caused by overusing the eyes, especially when looking at brightly lit screens for an extended period of time. Heart Cardiac injuries affect the heart and blood vessels. A common injury brought on by blunt trauma to the heart is a blunt cardiac injury. Penetrative trauma to the heart is typically caused by stab wounds or gunshot wounds, and it can have numerous effects on the heart, including contusions, ruptures, acute valvular disorders, arrhythmia, and heart failure.
A fractured rib or sternum can also occasionally result in accidental cardiac penetration. While gunshot wounds to the heart are not, stab wounds to the heart typically survive with medical attention. Due to its prominent location, the right ventricle is particularly vulnerable to injury. Treatment a significant portion of medical practice is devoted to the treatment of injuries. Severe hemorrhaging and fluid build-up around the heart are the two primary outcomes of traumatic injury to the heart. The study of traumatic injuries and their treatment is known as traumatology. Specialists may be able to treat some injuries. Trauma surgery is sometimes necessary for serious injuries. Physical therapy and occupational therapy are sometimes used for rehabilitation after serious injuries. Injuries are frequently treated with drugs. Acute pain is frequently treated with NSAIDs like aspirin and ibuprofen. Opioid medications like fentanyl, methadone, and morphine are used to treat severe pain after major trauma, but their use is limited because of the long-term risks they carry, like addiction. Complications can occur as a result of certain injuries, which can lengthen the recovery period, make symptoms worse, or even lead to death. Complications may be more likely depending on the severity of the injury and the victim's age. A common complication of traumatic injury is wound infection, which can lead to diagnoses like pneumonia or sepsis. Wound infections prevent the body from healing and can cause additional damage. The majority of wounds contain microbes from other parts of the body, and infection occurs when the immune system cannot clean up the contamination. Preventing infection can be accomplished through the surgical removal of devitalized tissue and the application of topical antimicrobials. Injuries frequently result in blood hemorrhaging, which can result in a number of complications. A hematoma can be caused by blood pooling beneath the skin, especially after blunt trauma or the suture of a laceration. Hematomas can become infected and are typically treated with compression, though in severe cases, surgery may be required. Excessive blood loss can result in hypovolemic shock, in which cellular oxygenation is prevented. This can result in organ failure, tachycardia, hypotension, coma, or both. Blood loss often needs to be treated with fluid replacement. Other injuries can cause cavitation, the formation of fistulas, and organ failure.
Journal of Trauma & Orthopedic Nursing