Vascular disease includes large vessel disease such as bilateral kidney artery stenosis
Journal of Kidney Treatment and Diagnosis is a peer-reviewed Journal, encourages on-going international research and information exchange through publication of latest advances on all aspects of Kidney Treatment and Diagnosis
Tubulointerstitial disease includes drug- and toxin-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and reflux nephropathy
The three most common causes of CKD in order of frequency as of 2015 are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. About one of five adults with hypertension and one of three adults with diabetes have CKD. If the cause is unknown, it is called idiopathic.
By anatomical location
Vascular disease includes large vessel disease such as bilateral kidney artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ischemic nephropathy, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and vasculitis.
Glomerular disease comprises a diverse group and is classified into:Primary glomerular disease such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and IgA nephropathy (or nephritis). Secondary glomerular disease such as diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis
Tubulointerstitial disease includes drug- and toxin-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and reflux nephropathy.
Obstructive nephropathy, as exemplified by bilateral kidney stones and benign prostatic hyperplasia of the prostate gland. Rarely, pinworms infecting the kidney can cause obstructive nephropathy.
Congenital disease such as polycystic kidney disease. Mesoamerican nephropathy, is "a new form of kidney disease that could be called agricultural nephropathy". A high and so-far unexplained number of new cases of CKD, referred to as the Mesoamerican nephropathy, has been noted among male workers in Central America, mainly in sugar cane fields in the lowlands of El Salvador and Nicaragua. Heat stress from long hours of piece-rate work at high average temperatures of about 36 °C (96 °F) is suspected, as are agricultural chemicals
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Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research.